Methods

Methods refer to the computational methods used by artist and humanists. Computational methods are defined as the following:

  1. The term 'method' broadly denotes all the techniques and tools that are used to gain new knowledge in the various academic fields which constitute the arts and humanities.
  2. A method is a computational one if it is either based on ICT (i.e. database technology), or critically dependent on it (i.e. statistical analysis).
  3. As the initial version of the database focuses on projects involved in the creation of digital resources, the taxonomy focuses on computational methods used for the creation, analysis and dissemination of such resources.

The Taxonomy was originally created by the AHDS and development is now be taking forward through a community, led by arts-humanities.net.

Methods

Method Categories

  • Communication and collaborationWays of working with your fellow researchers, both locally and at a distance, such as video conferencing or sharing electronic documents.
  • Data analysisExtraction of information, knowledge or meaning from a digital resource, using techniques such as searching and querying or feature measurement.
  • Data captureConverting analogue information into raw digital data ("digitisation"). Examples include the recognition of printed text, geophysical surveying or digital photography.
  • Data publishing and disseminationPresentation and dissemination / communication of results and findings, using techniques such as desktop publishing or website design.
  • Data structuring and enhancementOrganising data captured from one or various sources into a uniform structure (such as a database), or augmenting digital information (e.g. enhancing a digital image).
  • Practice-led researchPractice-led research techniques used for creating digital content such as illustrations, photographs, musical compositions or animations.
  • Strategy and project managementThe planning, organisation and monitoring of ICT-based projects, focusing upon issues such as data security, risk analysis and system usability.
Communication and collaborationback to the top
Audio interaction (asynchronous)

Audio interaction (asynchronous) is one of the Asynchronous Computer Mediated Communications (ACMC). ACMC support the collaborative discussion and critique of sharable representations over time and anywhere in space among participants using audio, video, textual and graphical annotations on a digitised resource, without a synchronous interaction. Read more...

Audio-visual interaction (synchronous)

Audio-visual interaction (synchronous) is one of the Synchronous Computer Mediated Communications (SCMC). ‘Computer Mediated Communication’ (CMC) is defined as any communicative transaction which occurs through the use of two or more networked computers. In synchronous communications all participants are online at the same time. Graphical and textual interaction can also be forms of synchronous communication. Read more...

Graphical interaction (asynchronous)

Graphical interaction (asynchronous) is one of the Asynchronous Computer Mediated Communications (ACMC). ACMC support the collaborative discussion and critique of sharable representations over time and anywhere in space among participants using audio, video, textual and graphical annotations on a digitised resource, without a synchronous interaction. Read more...

Graphical interaction (synchronous)

Graphical interaction (synchronous) is one of the Synchronous Computer Mediated Communications (SCMC). Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) is defined as any communicative transaction which occurs through the use of two or more networked computers. In synchronous communications all participants are online at the same time. Audio-visual and textual interaction can also be forms of synchronous communication. Read more...

Resource sharing

Resource sharing describes arrangements that give different users shared access to resources (e.g. audio, textual, video and graphical data) on a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, wiki, Virtual Research Environment (VRE) or similar means for collaboration or publication. Read more...

Textual interaction (asynchronous)

Textual interaction (asynchronous) is one of the Asynchronous Computer Mediated Communications (ACMC). ACMC support the collaborative discussion and critique of sharable representations over time and anywhere in space among participants using audio, video, textual and graphical annotations on a digitised resource, without a synchronous interaction. Read more...

Textual interaction (synchronous)

Textual interaction (synchronous) is one of the Synchronous Computer Mediated Communications (SCMC). Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) is defined as any communicative transaction which occurs through the use of two or more networked computers. In synchronous communications all participants are online at the same time. Audio-visual and graphical interaction can also be forms of synchronous communication. Read more...

Video-based interaction (asynchronous)

Video-based interaction (asynchronous) is one of the Asynchronous Computer Mediated Communications (ACMC). ACMC can support the collaborative discussion and critique of sharable representations over time and anywhere in space among participants using audio, video, textual and graphical annotations on a digitised resource, without a synchronous interaction. Read more...

Data analysisback to the top
Collating

Collation is the process of comparing different versions of a text to discover the location and type of textual variants. Collation is fundamental to a variety of scholarly pursuits, for example in the Arts and Humanities field it can be used for the accurate reconstruction of texts of classical works. In the past collation was performed by hand; today, it is performed with the assistance of a computer. Read more...

Collocating

Refers to the techniques used to detect patterns of words that appear together in a text more often than would be expected by chance. A collocation is a group or pair of words that are always used together, and can illustrate restrictions on which verbs or adjectives can be used with particular nouns, or the order in which words appear. Read more...

Content analysis

Content analysis is a research technique focused on the content and internal features of media. It is used to determine the presence of certain words, concepts, themes, phrases, characters, or sentences within texts or sets of texts and to quantify this presence in an objective manner. Read more...

Content-based image retrieval

Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) refers to techniques used to search for digital images by features of their content, which is particularly helpful when studying large databases. It is often preferable to perform searches relying on metadata, which can be expensive and time-consuming to produce, as it requires humans to describe each individual item in the database. Read more...

Content-based sound retrieval

Refers to techniques used to search for sound files by features of their content, using specialist software, which is particularly helpful when studying large databases. It is often preferable to perform searches relying on metadata, which can be expensive and time-consuming to produce, as it requires humans to describe each individual item in the database. Read more...

Data mining

Data mining is the process of using computing power to extract hidden patterns from data, analysing the results from different perspectives and summarising it into a useful format, such as a graph or table. This process is often facilitated by the use of metadata. It is important that any patterns found are verified and validated by comparison with other data samples. In this way, data mining can identify trends that go beyond simple data analysis. Read more...

Image feature measurement

Image feature measurement is a term to describe techniques used to acquire, measure, and analyse the parameters of digital images, such as size, shape, relative locations, textures, grey tones and colours. These parameters are also known as ‘perception attributes’. Read more...

Image segmentation

Segmentation refers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments, also known as superpixels. The goal of segmentation is to simplify and/or change the representation of an image into something that is more meaningful and easier to analyse. Read more...

Indexing

Indexing refers to techniques used to generate indexes of words in a text, in order that the reader can find information quickly and easily. Although indexing is still usually performed by hand, specialised computer software is often used to facilitate sorting, editing, formatting and printing. Read more...

Motion analysis

Motion analysis provides systematic, time-dependent and quantitative data on any movement captured using digital video, as recorded in moving image collections. It is related to motion capture, which is the process of recording movement and translating that movement onto a digital model. Read more...

Overlaying

Refers to the techniques used to produce a geometric intersection between two sets of data to highlight features of interest. Overlaying is often used when studying or displaying maps. Specifically, the term ‘overlaying’ refers to the use of vector data. A similar method called ‘data extraction’ is performed using raster data. Read more...

Parsing

Parsing is an important method used in both computer science and linguistics. The term is synonymous with ‘syntactic analysis’, and refers to the process of taking a sequence (e.g. of characters), determining its structure, and checking whether it is legal in a given language. This is done by checking the structure of the sequence against a given formal grammar. Read more...

Record linkages

The term ‘record linkage’ refers to techniques used to link records from different sources, by finding entries that refer to the same entity (e.g. person) in two or more files. These entries can be combined to form individual micro records. Read more...

Searching and querying

In this context, ‘Searching and Querying’ refers to the extraction of information from data by means of query languages. This process is very different from queries performed using a web search engine, which are often unstructured and ambiguous. Read more...

Sound analysis

Refers to the extraction of information and meaning from sound signals for classification, storage, retrieval and synthesis. Different types of sound, for example voice and music, can be analysed in different ways. Read more...

Spatial data analysis

This method comprises techniques used to analyse spatial (geographic) data. Such techniques include Thiessen polygon analysis, the X-tent principle, cost/friction analysis and network analysis, among others. Read more...

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis methods include descriptive statistics, inferential/predictive statistics and kriging. Read more...

Stemmatics

Refers to techniques used to reconstruct the transmission of a text on the basis of relations between the various surviving manuscripts. Read more...

Stylometrics

Refers to the techniques used for the quantitative examination of textual and linguistic styles, which is often used as a method for authorship attribution studies. It can also be applied to music and fine art. Read more...

Text mining

Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text data mining, roughly equivalent to text analytics, refers generally to the process of deriving high-quality information from text. ‘High quality’ in text mining usually refers to some combination of relevance, novelty, and interest. Read more...

Topic Detection and Tracking

Topic Detection and Tracking (TDT) refers to systems that monitor topically related material and sources, for example news stories, by algorithmic means and track these as they change over time. This data can be in a variety of different types of media formats, such as video, audio and text. Read more...

Visualisation

Refers to techniques used to summarise and present data visually, in a form that enables people to understand and analyse the information. Formats can include images, maps, timelines, graphs and tables. Visualisation often uses computer graphics software, including virtual reality and 2-D or 3-D animation, as well as static images. Read more...

Data captureback to the top
2d scanning and photography

The exact method of 2D scanning or photography to use depends largely on the subject of the image. Sometimes the two methods can be used interchangeably to achieve similar results. The main difference is that 2D scanning involves capturing the image gradually as a line of light moves over its surface, whereas in photography the entire image is captured at once. Read more...

3d scanning

3D scanning refers to data captured by means of a three-dimensional scanner. A 3D scanner is a device that analyses a real-world object or environment to collect data on its shape and possibly its appearance (e.g. colour, texture). The collected data can then be used to construct digital, three-dimensional models useful for a wide variety of applications. Read more...

Geophysical survey

Refers to data capture by means of geophysical methods for spatial studies. In archaeology, this most often refers to ground-based physical sensing techniques used for imaging or mapping, although data may be collected from above or below the Earth's surface or from aerial or marine platforms. Read more...

GPS and total station surveys

Refers to the capture of spatial information by means of GPS (Global Positioning Systems) or Total Station equipment, which is often used in archaeological field surveys and map-making. Read more...

Heads-up digitising and interactive tracing

Heads-up digitisation, or on-screen digitisation, is a very commonly used method of digitisation. It is similar to manual digitisation except that the base map or image is already in a digital raster form. The term 'heads-up digitisation' is used because the attention of the user is focused up on the computer screen and not on a digitisation tablet. Read more...

Manual input and transcription

Transcription is the conversion of spoken into written words, or of handwriting or a photograph of text into pure text. Additionally, the term can apply to the conversion of a written source into another medium, such as scanning it to produce a digital version. Read more...

Motion capture

Refers to the capture of data on an object's or person’s movement and translating this onto a digital model. Read more...

Moving image capture

Moving image capture refers to data captured by means of digital video cameras, webcams and TV cards. The essential parameters of any moving image sequence as a visual presentation are: presence or absence of colour, aspect ratio, resolution and image change rate. Read more...

Music recognition

Music recognition is a type of MIR (Music Information Retrieval ), the interdisciplinary science of retrieving information from music. Read more...

Remote sensing

Acquiring information about an object or phenomenon, by using equipment that is either wireless, or not in physical contact with the object or phenomenon itself. This data is then processed and analysed using computer software, known as a remote sensing application. Read more...

Sound generation

The term ‘sound generation’ refers to the production of sound by means of digital instruments. Read more...

Sound recording

Sound recording is an electrical or mechanical inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are 'analogue recording' and 'digital recording'. Read more...

Speech recognition

Refers to the conversion of spoken words and phrases into text. Speech recognition software (also known as automatic speech recognition or computer speech recognition) converts spoken words to machine-readable input. Read more...

Text recognition

Text recognition is also known as OCR (Optical Character Recognition). This term refers to the conversion of scanned images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text (usually captured by a scanner) into machine-editable text documents. OCR can also be used to produce text files from files containing images of alphanumeric characters, such as those produced by fax transmissions. Read more...

Use of existing digital data

Refers to the usage of data that already exists in digital form. This can include any type of digital media, such as text, images, sound or video. Digital data may be reused to gain new meaning, and present it to a different audience. There are many different ways this data can be used, such as analysis, editing and publishing. Read more...

Data publishing and dissemination: back to the top
Collaborative publishing

The collaborative creation of content (graphical, textual, audio, video etc.) which evolves over time in a publicly-accessible workspace. Examples can include Wikis and collaborative blogs. Read more...

Desktop publishing and pre-press

Desktop publishing uses page layout software to create publication documents on a computer. These documents can include displays, leaflets and slide shows as well as books; the term can also apply to websites. Generally, specialist software is required, although more basic results can be achieved with most word processing packages. Read more...

Disk publishing

Amalgamating software, media or documents onto a disk (CD, DVD, Blu-Ray etc.) with installation files or viewer software. A CD can usually hold up to 700MB, a DVD can hold between 4GB and 17GB, and a Blu-Ray Disk (BD) can hold between 25GB and 50GB of data. Read more...

General website development

The term ‘website development’ can incorporate interface and application (e.g. Flash) design and coding and programming for the Web, for example the use of markup languages (e.g. XHTML and XML), stylesheets (e.g. CSS and XSLT), server-side scripting (e.g. ASP and PHP) or client-side scripting (e.g. JavaScript). It can also include the maintenance of websites, and adapting them where necessary, as technology evolves. Read more...

Interface design

A user interface is the part of a computer program that the user is able to interact with to perform various tasks and conduct activities. In particular, the term ‘interface design’ refers to the design of websites and software applications. Read more...

Resource sharing

Resource sharing describes arrangements that give different users shared access to resources (e.g. audio, textual, video and graphical data) on a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, wiki, Virtual Research Environment (VRE) or similar means for collaboration or publication. Read more...

Server scripting

Server scripting is a technology in which a user's request is fulfilled by running a script directly on the web server to generate dynamic web pages. It is usually used to provide interactive web sites that interface to databases or other data stores. Read more...

Streaming media

Streaming media are multimedia that are constantly received by, and normally presented to, an end-user while being delivered by a streaming provider. The name refers to the delivery method of the medium rather than to the medium itself. Read more...

User contributed content

User contributed content, a concept also known as ‘consumer-generated media’ (CGM), ‘user-created content’ (UCC) or ‘user-generated content’ (UGC), refers to various kinds of media content that are contributed to a project by the end-users. Read more...

Web browser scripting

Websites use scripting to enhance the browsing experience. JavaScript and VBScript are the most popular scripting languages on the Web. Read more...

Data structuring and enhancementback to the top
2d modelling - raster

Refers to the design of 2-dimensional representations/reconstructions of objects or structures using a raster data model and specialised software. They can be used alone or as components of 3D models. Read more...

2d modelling - vector

Refers to the design of 2-dimensional representations/reconstructions of objects or structures using a vector data model and specialised software. They can be used alone or as components of 3D models. Read more...

3d modelling - interactive

The term '3D modelling - interactive', or ‘Virtual Reality’ (VR), refers to the design of interactive 3-dimensional graphical representations of objects or places. These can be reconstructions of existing or historical places, abstract systems, or representations of imagined worlds or objects. Related terms include 'Artificial Reality' and 'Cyberspace', as well as 'Virtual Worlds' and 'Virtual Environments'. Read more...

3d modelling - vector

Refers to the design of 3-dimensional representations/reconstructions of objects or structures using a vector data model and specialised software. Read more...

Animation

Traditional cel animation consists of photographs of drawings (frames), each of which differs slightly from the next, arranged in sequence on film. In order to create the illusion of movement without jerkiness, between 12 and 70 frames per second must be created. Read more...

Cataloguing and indexing

Cataloguing and indexing refer to systems that record and order the semantics and syntax of the data, to enable resource discovery and collection management, to improve searchability and access and to allow the data to be collected and shared. Read more...

Coding and standardisation

In this context, the term ‘Coding and Standardisation’ refers to the process of translating large amounts of data from diverse sources into standardised codes for data processing. Read more...

Data modelling

Refers to the development of a theoretical framework - based on abstract models that describe how data is represented and accessed - by which information is structured for the use in a database system. Read more...

Geo-referencing and projection

Geo-referencing is a technique used to convert images from image coordinates to real-world coordinates to establish spatial locations of geographical features in terms of map projections or coordinate systems. It can also be used to establish the relation between raster or vector images and coordinates. Read more...

Graphical rendering

The term ‘rendering’, in a computer graphics context, refers to the process of generating an image from a digital model, by computing its surface qualities, such as colour, shading, smoothness and texture. Rendering can achieve both photorealistic and non-photorealistic results, and is the final step in the animation process. Read more...

Image enhancement

The term ‘image enhancement’, or ‘image editing’, refers to techniques used to improve the appearance of digital, as well as analogue, images. Both raster and vector files can be manipulated using specialist software. Read more...

Image restoration

The term ‘image restoration’ refers to techniques used to digitally rectify known, measured or accurately surmised degradations of images, for example historic photographs, sketches and paintings. Read more...

Lemmatisation

Refers to techniques used to group a set of forms of a word (a lexeme) together under a single headword, or lemma – the form of the word that would be listed in a dictionary, glossary or index. This enables different inflected forms of the same word to be analysed as a single item, which is useful when compiling frequency and distribution information. Read more...

Photogrammetry

Photogrammetry is a technique used to obtain reliable measurements or information from digital or analogue photographs (photo-grammes). It is often classified as a type of remote sensing, as objects are measured without being touched. Read more...

Record linkages

The term ‘record linkage’ refers to techniques used to link records from different sources, by finding entries that refer to the same entity (e.g. person) in two or more files. These entries can be combined to form individual micro records. Read more...

Sound compression

In this context, ‘sound compression’, or ‘audio compression’, refers to techniques used to eliminate redundant information of a sound file in order to reduce its size, enabling more efficient storage and transmission. Read more...

Sound editing

Refers to the techniques used to mix, adjust, optimise and fix sound signals, either for audio or video files. Such editing can include speeding up or slowing down the sound, cutting portions, fading between clips, combining multiple audio files, applying effects such as reverberation and removing unwanted background noise. Types of sound can include dialogue, effects and music. Read more...

Sound encoding

Refers to the transformation of sound signals into a defined data structure. Sound can be encoded into different formats for a variety of purposes. These include the use of MIDI, stereo or surround sound for playback, or compressing the file to enable ease of sharing or transmission, e.g. via the Internet. Read more...

Sound encoding - MIDI

Refers to the transformation of sound signals into a MIDI-conforming data structure. ‘MIDI’ stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface, and allows synchronisation and data sharing between different electronic musical instruments. Read more...

Text encoding - descriptive

Descriptive text encoding, or markup, refers to the addition of character and symbols, or tags, at certain places in a text in order to convey information about concrete and abstract concepts (e.g. genres, topical subjects); its logical structure (e.g. identification of headings, paragraphs); its linguistic components (e.g. PoS-tagging [parts of speech], phonological and morphological markup); or about concrete and abstract named entities (e.g. identification of personal names, geographic names). Read more...

Text encoding - presentational

Refers to the addition of character and symbols, or tags, at certain places in a text in order to convey information about its visual appearance. Presentational text encoding, or markup, is used in WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) word processing software, to display onscreen text with the desired formatting. Read more...

Text encoding - referential

Refers to the addition of character and symbols, or tags, at certain places in a text in order to convey information about external elements. These can include hypermedia, or hyperlinks that take the user further down the page, to other pages of the text (internal links), or to related documents (external links). Read more...

Video and moving image compression

Refers to techniques used to eliminate redundant information of moving image files in order to reduce its size, thereby facilitating its transmission. Like other forms of compression, video compression can be either lossless or lossy. However, as lossy compression produces considerably smaller files that maintain an acceptable quality, lossless compression is rarely used for video. Read more...

Video editing

Refers to the techniques used to manipulate moving image data into a defined structure. Linear editing is where the video is edited in scene order, and was performed when footage only existed in a videotape format. In non-linear editing, which is usually used for digital video files, any frame can be accessed easily, and edited in any order. Read more...

Virtual world modelling

The design and creation of a three dimensional environment, often undertaken with proprietary tools distributed with video games. Usually the term ‘virtual worlds’ refers to multi-user online environments. Some virtual worlds are designed to simulate a real place, others can be more abstract or fantasy-related. Read more...

Practice-led researchback to the top
2d graphic design

The technique of using digital drawing software to render two-dimensional visual representations of objects, ideas and messages. Read more...

2d illustration

A two-dimensional visualisation that stresses subject more than form. Illustrations can include drawings, paintings, photographs or digital images that decorate textual information and act as a visual representation of its content. In particular, illustrations can often provide the reader with a greater understanding of the subject matter than merely a textual description. Read more...

2d scanning

‘Scanning’ refers to the process of creating a digital image from a paper document. The term ‘2D scanning’ particularly refers to data captured by means of a two-dimensional scanner (e.g. flatbed scanner, film/slide scanner, drum scanner). The process involves the gradual capture of an image as a line of light moves over its surface. Read more...

3d graphic design

The technique of using digital drawing software to render visual representations of three-dimensional objects. The principles are very similar to those of 2D graphic design, but different results are produced. Read more...

3d modelling - vector

Refers to the design of 3-dimensional representations/reconstructions of objects or structures using a vector data model and specialised software. Read more...

3d scanning

3D scanning refers to data captured by means of a three-dimensional scanner. A 3D scanner is a device that analyses a real-world object or environment to collect data on its shape and possibly its appearance (e.g. colour, texture). The collected data can then be used to construct digital, three-dimensional models useful for a wide variety of applications. Read more...

Animation

Traditional cel animation consists of photographs of drawings (frames), each of which differs slightly from the next, arranged in sequence on film. In order to create the illusion of movement without jerkiness, between 12 and 70 frames per second must be created. Read more...

Audio dubbing

A process to enhance, add to, or replace totally, the originally recorded audio signal without modifying the original video signal. Read more...

Audio mixing

A process or technique used to combine a number of recorded sounds, such as speech, atmosphere, sound effects and music, into one or more tracks. Usually, the intention is to blend the sounds in such a way as to create the illusion that they were all recorded together. Read more...

Image manipulation

The process of modifying an image in a manner that affects its original visual form. Image manipulation differs from image enhancement or restoration in that the subject matter and meaning of the original image are often changed, sometimes quite dramatically, although some manipulations are more subtle, blurring the boundaries between truth and fiction. Read more...

Moving image capture

Moving image capture refers to data captured by means of digital video cameras, webcams and TV cards. The essential parameters of any moving image sequence as a visual presentation are: presence or absence of colour, aspect ratio, resolution and image change rate. Read more...

Music composition

The process of developing a piece of original music designed for repeated performance. Musical compositions are normally written using musical notation, although some pieces are played entirely from memory, or improvised spontaneously during the performance itself. Some performances are recorded in order that they can be played back numerous times; others exist purely as a single live event. Read more...

Photography

Photography is the process, activity and art of creating still or moving pictures by recording radiation on a sensitive medium, such as a photographic film (a film camera), or an electronic sensor (a digital camera). The different types of camera are each more suited to different situations and objectives. Read more...

Photomontage

A technique whereby an image is produced by assembling various different photographs. Originally, this was done by physically cutting and pasting different photographs together, then taking a photograph of the result. Now, it is usually performed using digital image editing software. Read more...

Sound editing

Refers to the techniques used to mix, adjust, optimise and fix sound signals, either for audio or video files. Such editing can include speeding up or slowing down the sound, cutting portions, fading between clips, combining multiple audio files, applying effects such as reverberation and removing unwanted background noise. Types of sound can include dialogue, effects and music. Read more...

Sound generation

The term ‘sound generation’ refers to the production of sound by means of digital instruments. Read more...

Sound recording

Sound recording is an electrical or mechanical inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are 'analogue recording' and 'digital recording'. Read more...

Storyboarding

A graphic, sequential depiction of a narrative, which is often similar in appearance to a comic strip. Storyboards are often used to plan and visualise live-action video, animation, theatre, advertising, graphic novels or interactive media (including website interfaces). Read more...

Texture design and mapping

The production and applying / wrapping of a texture image onto an object to create a realistic representation of the object in 3D space. The process is similar to wrapping a plain object in patterned paper. Texture mapping adds detail, surface texture or colour to the object. Read more...

Video and moving image compression

Refers to techniques used to eliminate redundant information of moving image files in order to reduce its size, thereby facilitating its transmission. Like other forms of compression, video compression can be either lossless or lossy. However, as lossy compression produces considerably smaller files that maintain an acceptable quality, lossless compression is rarely used for video. Read more...

Video editing

Refers to the techniques used to manipulate moving image data into a defined structure. Linear editing is where the video is edited in scene order, and was performed when footage only existed in a videotape format. In non-linear editing, which is usually used for digital video files, any frame can be accessed easily, and edited in any order. Read more...

Video post production

The term ‘video post-production’ refers to the process of producing a list of edit decisions and then creating an edited program ready for distribution or viewing. It can apply to any of the processes that occur after the filming and recording has taken place. Read more...

Virtual world modelling

The design and creation of a three dimensional environment, often undertaken with proprietary tools distributed with video games. Usually the term ‘virtual worlds’ refers to multi-user online environments. Some virtual worlds are designed to simulate a real place, others can be more abstract or fantasy-related. Read more...

Strategy and project managementback to the top
Accessibility analysis

Accessibility involves designing a computer system to allow all users equal access to the information contained within it and the benefits it provides. Since the introduction of the final element of the Disability Discrimination Act in late 2004, equal access to publicly-available services for disabled users has been a legal requirement for all organisations operating in the United Kingdom. Read more...

CurationDigital curation refers to the process of managing digital information throughout its lifecycle. It is built upon the notion that the time period that digital information has value to a stakeholder is likely to be greater than the time period that it will be accessible and usable, due to its dependency upon specific technological components. Read more...
Documentation

The thorough documentation of an information system's design is vital to its sustainability. Programming code can swiftly become akin to a cryptic crossword, and a professional programmer will always ensure that the clues needed to decipher the code are included within it. Read more...

General project management

The organisation, coordination, monitoring and adaptation of systems development tasks and resources, usually in tandem with a documented project plan which may incorporate elements of one or more ICT project management methodologies. Read more...

Human factors analysis

The 'human factors' of a computing system covers two main areas: the first is the social impact that the system will have, while the second concerns the relationship that the system's users will have with it. Read more...

Iterative design

Relates to the concept of releasing versions of a design, based on a cycle of prototyping (or initialisation), testing, analysing and refining a product or process. Iterative design is commonly used in the development of human computer interfaces. Read more...

Preservation

The main objective of digital preservation is to ensure that data continues to remain accessible, even if the original operating environment, encoding format or other dependency is rendered obsolete. This goes beyond the simple long term storage of data to include the means by which a resource is interpreted and retrieved to ensure it remains accessible and useful. Read more...

Prototyping

A prototype is a model of a new system or product. It is often used as part of the design process in order to explore alternatives, test theories and confirm performance prior to starting production of a product. Read more...

Risk management

A two-step process to analyse the risks inherent in the development of an information system, then develop strategies to mitigate them, depending upon their likely impact. The risk management process should minimise spending, but maximise the reduction of the negative effects of the various possible risks to the project. Read more...

Security planning

System security exists at many levels, on desktop and laptop computers, as well as mobile devices. Read more...

System quality assurance and code testing

The term ‘Quality Assurance’, or ‘QA’, refers to methods used to test and improve the production process and the quality, security, suitability, maintainability and reliability of a product or system, which take place during its design and manufacture, and prior to its release. Read more...

Usability analysis

The "usability" of a computer system is literally its "ease of use": how well it conveys information about its purpose and the methods available for users to achieve their goals. The term can also encompass the standards and guidelines of design for accessibility. Read more...

Version control

Version control can also be referred to as ‘revision control’, ‘source control’, or ‘(source) code management’ (SCM). The term refers to the management and control of features and changes made to software throughout the life cycle of an ICT project. Read more...